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Radare2

What Where
Official Page https://www.radare.org
Source https://github.com/radareorg/radare2
Download https://github.com/radareorg/radare2/releases/
Install sys/install.sh

Example usage

Example from doing this tryhackme challenge https://tryhackme.com/room/adventofcyber2 -> "[Day 17] Reverse Engineering ReverseELFneering"

r2 -d ./challenge1

b+1024
e anal.bb.maxsize=2048
aa

afl | grep main
pdf @main
db 0x00400b62
px @rbp-0xc
ds
dr
px @rbp-0x8

Cheat Sheet

load without any analysis (file header at offset 0x0): r2 -n /path/to/file

  • analyze all: aa
  • show sections: iS
  • list functions: afl
  • list imports: ii
  • list entrypoints: ie
  • seek to function: s sym.main
  • open project: Po <name>
  • save project: Ps <name>
  • edit project notes: Pn -

inspecting a function

  • show basic block disassembly: pdb
  • show function disassembly: pdf
  • show function arguments: afa
  • show function variables: afv
  • rename function variable: afvn
  • set function variable type: afvt
  • add/analyze function: af

visual mode

  • enter visual mode: V
  • select function, variable, xref: v
  • quick command/seek: _ <search string>
  • custom quick command list: ??
  • update the list of commands by changing $R2HOME/hud.
  • show cursor: c
  • set function name: d
  • add comment: ;
  • remove comment: ;-

graph mode

graph mode is not visual mode!

  • enter graph modes: VV
  • cycle types of graphs:
  • forward: p
  • backwards: P

  • types of graphs:

  • graph view
  • graph view + opcode bytes
  • esil
  • esil + comments
  • overview

  • seek to function: g<identifier>

  • undo seek: u
  • define new function at cursor: df
  • rename function at cursor: dr
  • show comments: '
  • add comment: /
  • add comment (complex): :CC!
  • select bb: ???
  • seek to next bb: tab
  • seek to previous bb: TAB
  • if bb has conditional branch:
  • seek to True target: t
  • seek to False target: f

pipe,grep,etc

  • exec multiple cmd: ;
  • pipeline cmd: |
  • run shell cmd: '!' , and give output back to r2 buffer: '!!'
  • grep:
  • <cmd>~<string> grep string from command output
  • <cmd>~[n] grep also the 'n' column
  • <cmd>~:n grep also the 'n' row

analysis, assembly, memory

  • analyze functions: af
  • analyze stack: ad@rsp or ad@esp
  • search for opcode: /a
  • search for rop/jop/etc: /R
  • search for bytes: /x
  • get offset for the actual seek point address: ?p

Tryhackme tutorial notes

Just some notes from the tryhackme tutorials intro to x86-64 and Dumping Router Firmware

Open "if2" to analyses the program:

r2 -d if2
e asm.syntax=att
aaa
afl

Output:

_radare2_part1

Set breakpoint at popq %rbp

pdf @main
db 0x561d78dd863c

Output:

_radare2_part2

Start execution of the program:

dc
px @ rbp-0x8
px @ rbp-0x4
px @ rbp-0xc

Output:

_radare2_part3

Read value of var_ch, var_8h, var_4h before popq/retq as requested.

Task 5 open loop2

r2 -d loop2
e asm.syntax=att
aaa
afl
pdf @main

db 0x55ffc9760620 # sarl
dc
dc

Read at secound loop

px @ rbp-0x8
px @ rbp-0xc

Read at end of loop

dc
px @ rbp-0x8
px @ rbp-0xc

task6 - crackme1

r2 -d crackme1
e asm.syntax=att
aaa
afl
pdf @main

px @ rbp-0x48 (var_48h)
px @ rbp-0x54 (var_54h) pw
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