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Speed

Latency Table

Medium nanoseconds milliseconds Comment
L1 cache reference 0.5 ns
Branch mispredict 5   ns
L2 cache reference 7   ns 14x L1 cache
Mutex lock/unlock 25   ns
Main memory reference 100   ns 20x L2 cache, 200x L1 cache
Compress 1K bytes with Zippy 3,000   ns
Send 1K bytes over 1 Gbps network 10,000   ns 0.01 ms
Read 1 MB sequentially from memory 250,000   ns 0.25 ms
Round trip within same datacenter 500,000   ns 0.5  ms
Read 1 MB sequentially from SSD 1,000,000   ns 1    ms 4X memory
Disk seek 10,000,000   ns 10    ms 20x datacenter roundtrip
Read 1 MB sequentially from disk 20,000,000   ns 20    ms 80x memory, 20X SSD
Send packet CA->Netherlands->CA 150,000,000   ns 150    ms