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Network

Ports

http://www.iana.org/assignments/service-names-port-numbers/service-names-port-numbers.xhtml https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_TCP_and_UDP_port_numbers

Subnet

IPv4

CIDR Subnet Addresses Wildcard
/32 255.255.255.255 1 0.0.0.0
/31 255.255.255.254 2 0.0.0.1
/30 255.255.255.252 4 0.0.0.3
/29 255.255.255.248 8 0.0.0.7
/28 255.255.255.240 16 0.0.0.15
/27 255.255.255.224 32 0.0.0.31
/26 255.255.255.192 64 0.0.0.63
/25 255.255.255.128 128 0.0.0.127
/24 255.255.255.0 256 0.0.0.255
/23 255.255.254.0 512 0.0.1.255
/22 255.255.252.0 1024 0.0.3.255
/21 255.255.248.0 2048 0.0.7.255
/20 255.255.240.0 4096 0.0.15.255
/19 255.255.224.0 8192 0.0.31.255
/18 255.255.192.0 16,384 0.0.63.255
/17 255.255.128.0 32,768 0.0.127.255
/16 255.255.0.0 65,536 0.0.255.255
/15 255.254.0.0 131,072 0.1.255.255
/14 255.252.0.0 262,144 0.3.255.255
/13 255.248.0.0 524,288 0.7.255.255
/12 255.240.0.0 1,048,576 0.15.255.255
/11 255.224.0.0 2,097,152 0.31.255.255
/10 255.192.0.0 4,194,304 0.63.255.255
/9 255.128.0.0 8,388,608 0.127.255.255
/8 255.0.0.0 16,777,216 0.255.255.255

IPv6

Prefix /48 /56 /64 /127 # Addresses
/24 16M 4G 1T 8388608Y 16777216Y
/25 8M 2G 512G 4194304Y 8388608Y
/26 4M 1G 256G 2097152Y 4194304Y
/27 2M 512M 128G 1048576Y 2097152Y
/28 1M 256M 64G 524288Y 1048576Y
/29 512K 128M 32G 262144Y 524288Y
/30 256K 64M 16G 131072Y 262144Y
/31 128K 32M 8G 65536Y 131072Y
/32 64K 16M 4G 32768Y 65536Y
/33 32K 8M 2G 16384Y 32768Y
/34 16K 4M 1G 8192Y 16384Y
/35 8K 2M 512M 4096Y 8192Y
/36 4K 1M 256M 2048Y 4096Y
/37 2K 512K 128M 1024Y 2048Y
/38 1K 256K 64M 512Y 1024Y
/39 512 128K 32M 256Y 512Y
/40 256 64K 16M 128Y 256Y
/41 128 32K 8M 64Y 128Y
/42 64 16K 4M 32Y 64Y
/43 32 8K 2M 16Y 32Y
/44 16 4K 1M 8Y 16Y
/45 8 2K 512K 4Y 8Y
/46 4 1K 256K 2Y 4Y
/47 2 512 128K 1Y 2Y
/48 1 256 64K 512Z 1Y
/49 128 32K 256Z 512Z
/50 64 16K 128Z 256Z
/51 32 8K 64Z 128Z
/52 16 4K 32Z 64Z
/53 8 2K 16Z 32Z
/54 4 1K 8Z 16Z
/55 2 512 4Z 8Z
/56 1 256 2Z 4Z
/57 128 1Z 2Z
/58 64 512E 1Z
/59 32 256E 512E
/60 16 128E 256E
/61 8 64E 128E
/62 4 32E 64E
/63 2 16E 32E
/64 1 8E 16E

IP addresses

Some useful lists

IPv4 possible notations

All possible notations of the IPv4 address 8.8.8.8 (source)

  • 8.8.8.8
  • 134744072
  • 0x8080808
  • 01002004010
  • 8.526344
  • 8.0x80808
  • 8.02004010
  • 8.8.2056
  • 8.8.0x808
  • 8.8.04010
  • 8.8.8.0x8
  • 8.8.8.010
  • 8.8.0x8.8
  • 8.8.0x8.0x8
  • 8.8.0x8.010
  • 8.8.010.8
  • 8.8.010.0x8
  • 8.8.010.010
  • 8.0x8.2056
  • 8.0x8.0x808
  • 8.0x8.04010
  • 8.0x8.8.8
  • 8.0x8.8.0x8
  • 8.0x8.8.010
  • 8.0x8.0x8.8
  • 8.0x8.0x8.0x8
  • 8.0x8.0x8.010
  • 8.0x8.010.8
  • 8.0x8.010.0x8
  • 8.0x8.010.010
  • 8.010.2056
  • 8.010.0x808
  • 8.010.04010
  • 8.010.8.8
  • 8.010.8.0x8
  • 8.010.8.010
  • 8.010.0x8.8
  • 8.010.0x8.0x8
  • 8.010.0x8.010
  • 8.010.010.8
  • 8.010.010.0x8
  • 8.010.010.010
  • 0x8.526344
  • 0x8.0x80808
  • 0x8.02004010
  • 0x8.8.2056
  • 0x8.8.0x808
  • 0x8.8.04010
  • 0x8.8.8.8
  • 0x8.8.8.0x8
  • 0x8.8.8.010
  • 0x8.8.0x8.8
  • 0x8.8.0x8.0x8
  • 0x8.8.0x8.010
  • 0x8.8.010.8
  • 0x8.8.010.0x8
  • 0x8.8.010.010
  • 0x8.0x8.2056
  • 0x8.0x8.0x808
  • 0x8.0x8.04010
  • 0x8.0x8.8.8
  • 0x8.0x8.8.0x8
  • 0x8.0x8.8.010
  • 0x8.0x8.0x8.8
  • 0x8.0x8.0x8.0x8
  • 0x8.0x8.0x8.010
  • 0x8.0x8.010.8
  • 0x8.0x8.010.0x8
  • 0x8.0x8.010.010
  • 0x8.010.2056
  • 0x8.010.0x808
  • 0x8.010.04010
  • 0x8.010.8.8
  • 0x8.010.8.0x8
  • 0x8.010.8.010
  • 0x8.010.0x8.8
  • 0x8.010.0x8.0x8
  • 0x8.010.0x8.010
  • 0x8.010.010.8
  • 0x8.010.010.0x8
  • 0x8.010.010.010
  • 010.526344
  • 010.0x80808
  • 010.02004010
  • 010.8.2056
  • 010.8.0x808
  • 010.8.04010
  • 010.8.8.8
  • 010.8.8.0x8
  • 010.8.8.010
  • 010.8.0x8.8
  • 010.8.0x8.0x8
  • 010.8.0x8.010
  • 010.8.010.8
  • 010.8.010.0x8
  • 010.8.010.010
  • 010.0x8.2056
  • 010.0x8.0x808
  • 010.0x8.04010
  • 010.0x8.8.8
  • 010.0x8.8.0x8
  • 010.0x8.8.010
  • 010.0x8.0x8.8
  • 010.0x8.0x8.0x8
  • 010.0x8.0x8.010
  • 010.0x8.010.8
  • 010.0x8.010.0x8
  • 010.0x8.010.010
  • 010.010.2056
  • 010.010.0x808
  • 010.010.04010
  • 010.010.8.8
  • 010.010.8.0x8
  • 010.010.8.010
  • 010.010.0x8.8
  • 010.010.0x8.0x8
  • 010.010.0x8.010
  • 010.010.010.8
  • 010.010.010.0x8
  • 010.010.010.010

TTL as OS identifier

There is a chance to guess the OS based on its TTL.

Here is an overview:

OS Version Protocol TTL
*nix (Linux/Unix) 64
AIX 3.2, 4.1 ICMP 255
AIX TCP 60
AIX UDP 30
BSDI BSD/OS 3.1 and 4.0 ICMP 255
Cisco ICMP 254
Compa Tru64 v5.0 ICMP 64
DEC Pathworks V5 TCP and UDP 30
Foundry ICMP 64
FreeBSD 5 ICMP 64
FreeBSD 3.4, 4.0 ICMP 255
FreeBSD 2.1R TCP and UDP 64
HP-UX 9.0x TCP and UDP 30
HP-UX 11 ICMP 255
HP-UX 11 TCP 64
HP-UX 10.2 ICMP 255
HP-UX 10.01 TCP and UDP 64
Irix 6.x TCP and UDP 60
Irix 6.5.3, 6.5.8 ICMP 255
Irix 5.3 TCP and UDP 60
Linux Red Hat 9 ICMP and TCP 64
Linux 2.4 kernel ICMP 255
Linux 2.2.14 kernel ICMP 255
Linux 2.0.x kernel ICMP 64
MPE/IX (HP) ICMP 200
MacOS/MacTCP X (10.5.6) ICMP/TCP/UDP 64
MacOS/MacTCP 2.0.x TCP and UDP 60
NetBSD ICMP 255
Netgear FVG318 ICMP and UDP 64
OS/2 TCP/IP 3.0 64
OSF/1 V3.2A TCP 60
OSF/1 V3.2A UDP 30
OpenBSD 2.6 & 2.7 ICMP 255
OpenVMS 07.01.2002 ICMP 255
Solaris 2.8 TCP 64
Solaris 2.5.1, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8 ICMP 255
Solaris/AIX 254
Stratus TCP_OS (14.3+) TCP and UDP 64
Stratus TCP_OS (14.2-) TCP and UDP 30
Stratus TCP_OS ICMP 255
Stratus STCP ICMP/TCP/UDP 60
SunOS 5.7 ICMP and TCP 255
SunOS 4.1.3/4.1.4 TCP and UDP 60
Ultrix V4.2 – 4.5 ICMP 255
Ultrix V4.1/V4.2A TCP 60
Ultrix V4.1/V4.2A UDP 30
VMS/Multinet TCP and UDP 64
VMS/TCPware TCP 60
VMS/TCPware UDP 64
VMS/UCX TCP and UDP 128
VMS/Wollongong 1.1.1.1 TCP 128
VMS/Wollongong 1.1.1.1 UDP 30
Windows for Workgroups TCP and UDP 32
Windows XP ICMP/TCP/UDP 128
Windows Vista ICMP/TCP/UDP 128
Windows Server 2008 ICMP/TCP/UDP 128
Windows Server 2003 128
Windows NT 4.0 SP6+ 128
Windows NT 4.0 SP5- 32
Windows NT 4.0 TCP and UDP 128
Windows NT 4 WRKS SP 3, SP 6a ICMP 128
Windows NT 4 Server SP4 ICMP 128
Windows NT 3.51 TCP and UDP 32
Windows ME ICMP 128
Windows 98, 98 SE ICMP 128
Windows 98 ICMP 32
Windows 98 TCP 128
Windows 95 TCP and UDP 32
Windows 7 ICMP/TCP/UDP 128
Windows 2000 pro ICMP/TCP/UDP 128
Windows 2000 family ICMP 128
Windows 10 ICMP/TCP/UDP 128
Windows 128
juniper ICMP 64